Как запустить спринг приложение из под сервера tomcat
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Как запустить спринг приложение из под сервера tomcat

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Spring приложение и tomcat

Допустим я собрал jar по туториалу с офф сайта spring.io . У меня есть папка с application -сервером tomcat . Как мне сделать так, чтобы собранный мной jar заработал под tomcat ? Просто положить его в папку lib ? Внутри jar надо указывать какую-то информацию о tomcat ?

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задан 18 янв 2017 в 10:38
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Сортировка: Сброс на вариант по умолчанию

Чтоб запустить на tomcat -е Вам нужно собрать war .

В принципе у спринга есть свой встроенный tomcat можно и сам jar запустить

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ответ дан 18 янв 2017 в 10:42
Parviz Rozikov Parviz Rozikov
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  • java
  • tomcat
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Разверните Spring Boot WAR на сервере Tomcat

Spring Boot — это соглашение о структуре конфигурации, которое позволяет нам создать готовую к работе установку проекта Spring, а Tomcat — один из самых популярных контейнеров сервлетов Java.

По умолчанию Spring Boot создает отдельное приложение Java, которое может работать как настольное приложение или настраиваться как системная служба, но есть среды, в которых мы не можем установить новую службу или запустить приложение вручную.

В отличие от автономных приложений, Tomcat устанавливается как служба, которая может управлять несколькими приложениями в рамках одного и того же прикладного процесса, что позволяет избежать необходимости специальной настройки для каждого приложения.

В этом руководстве мы создадим простое приложение Spring Boot и адаптируем его для работы в Tomcat.

2. Настройка приложения Spring Boot​

Давайте настроим простое веб-приложение Spring Boot, используя один из доступных начальных шаблонов:

 parent>   groupId>org.springframework.bootgroupId>   artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parentartifactId>   version>2.4.0version>   relativePath/>   parent>   dependencies>   dependency>   groupId>org.springframework.bootgroupId>   artifactId>spring-boot-starter-webartifactId>   dependency>   dependencies> 

Нет необходимости в дополнительных конфигурациях помимо стандартного @SpringBootApplication, поскольку Spring Boot позаботится о настройке по умолчанию.

Затем мы добавим простую REST EndPoint, чтобы возвращать нам допустимый контент:

 @RestController   public class TomcatController     @GetMapping("/hello")   public CollectionString> sayHello()    return IntStream.range(0, 10)   .mapToObj(i -> "Hello number " + i)   .collect(Collectors.toList());   >   > 

Наконец, мы запустим приложение с помощью mvn spring-boot:run и запустим браузер по адресу http://localhost:8080/hello , чтобы проверить результаты.

3. Создание Spring Boot WAR​

Контейнеры сервлетов ожидают, что приложения будут развернуты в соответствии с некоторыми контрактами. Для Tomcat контрактом является Servlet API 3.0 .

Чтобы наше приложение соответствовало этому контракту, мы должны внести небольшие изменения в исходный код.

Во-первых, нам нужно упаковать приложение WAR вместо JAR. Для этого мы изменим pom.xml следующим содержимым:

 packaging>warpackaging> 

Далее мы изменим окончательное имя файла WAR , чтобы не включать номера версий:

 build>   finalName>$ finalName>   .   build> 

Затем мы добавим зависимость Tomcat:

 dependency>   groupId>org.springframework.bootgroupId>   artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcatartifactId>   scope>providedscope>   dependency> 

Наконец, мы инициализируем контекст сервлета, требуемый Tomcat, путем реализации интерфейса SpringBootServletInitializer :

 @SpringBootApplication   public class SpringBootTomcatApplication extends SpringBootServletInitializer    > 

Чтобы создать наше WAR-приложение, развертываемое с помощью Tomcat, мы выполним пакет mvn clean. После этого наш WAR-файл генерируется по адресу target/spring-boot-deployment.war (при условии, что артефакт Maven — «spring-boot-deployment»).

Мы должны учитывать, что эта новая настройка делает наше приложение Spring Boot неавтономным приложением (если мы хотим, чтобы оно снова работало в автономном режиме, мы можем удалить предоставленную область из зависимости tomcat).

4. Развертывание WAR на Tomcat​

Чтобы наш файл WAR был развернут и запущен в Tomcat, нам необходимо выполнить следующие шаги:

  1. Загрузите Apache Tomcat и распакуйте его в папку tomcat .
  2. Скопируйте наш файл WAR из target/spring-boot-deployment.war в папку tomcat/webapps/
  3. В терминале перейдите в папку tomcat/bin и выполните
  4. catalina.bat запустить (в Windows)
  5. запуск catalina.sh (в системах на базе Unix)
  6. Перейдите по адресу http://localhost:8080/spring-boot-deployment/hello.

Это была быстрая установка Tomcat, поэтому ознакомьтесь с полным руководством по установке Tomcat . Существуют также дополнительные способы развертывания WAR-файла на Tomcat .

5. Вывод​

В этой краткой статье мы создали простое приложение Spring Boot и превратили его в действительное приложение WAR, которое можно развернуть на сервере Tomcat.

Как всегда, полный исходный код примеров доступен на GitHub .

  • 1. Введение
  • 2. Настройка приложения Spring Boot
  • 3. Создание Spring Boot WAR
  • 4. Развертывание WAR на Tomcat
  • 5. Вывод

What is Apache Tomcat?

what is Apache tomcat

Apache Tomcat is open source web server software for Java programming developed and maintained by the Apache software foundation. The initial idea of Apache tomcat software was to host and deploy the Java servlet that is the server-side Java code that manages HTTP results from client applications build using Java. It acts as a web server rather than a full-fledged application server that includes data persistence and load balancing capabilities. Apache Tomcat provides the basic feature of web server processing for the relevant servlets. It supports the java servlet lifecycle that are init(),service() and destroy() phases. It is the preferred web server software for Java implementations The latest stable release of a tomcat version 9.0.21, was released on June 7 th , 2019.

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Apache tomcat may be defined as a web server (that is also referred to as a web container/ servlet container), which processes the servlets, JSP’s (by internally converting your JSP’s to servlets internally), and also render JSP’s.

Note that a web server is different from that of an application server. Let us understand how these two differentiate from one another.

Why is Tomcat said to be a Web Server but not an Application Server?

  1. When packaging an application, it can either be packaged as a .war or .ear Tomcat is categorized as a web server since it can handle only .war files.
  2. A web server is responsible for processing servlets and JSP’s, whereas an application server should be able to process sturts, EJB’s(Enterprise Java Beans), JSF (Java Server Faces) along with servlets and JSP’s. Tomcat can process only servlets and JSP’s, thus making it a web server.
  3. A web server is often said to be a part of an application server since an application server exhibits all the features that a web server possesses. It also contains attributes such as load balancing, data persistence, and messaging, to name a few. However, vice versa does not apply.
  4. Web servers can operate only over HTTP protocol, whereas application servers can operate over various CGI protocols, including HTTP protocol. Application servers are mostly used to handle large enterprise edition applications. Since tomcat operates only on the HTTP protocol, it falls under the webserver.

Why do we need to use Apache Tomcat?

Web pages by itself are static HTML files. Hence a client cannot interact with a static web page. In order to facilitate our web pages with dynamic capabilities, a web server is required. To be able to interface one’s application with the webserver, predefined API’s (Application Programming Interfaces) are provided. Servlet is one such API provided by the Java Platform Enterprise Edition designed to work along with web servers. Monitoring the server for incoming client requests is not the job of a servlet but that of a web server.

How does Apache Tomcat work?

Tomcat is widely used by web developers when working on web application development. From a high-level perspective, apache tomcat is responsible to provide a run-time environment for the servlets. It provides an environment in which one could run their java code.

On a more detailed aspect, tomcat is responsible for:

  1. Listen to all incoming requests from clients.
  2. Load the respective servlet classes using the servlet mappings (from web.xml file) to handle incoming client requests.
  3. Execute the servlet class and.
  4. Finally, unload the servlet class.

From the point the servlet class is loaded to the point it’s unloaded, the servlet is responsible for handling the client request by carrying out its various life cycle methods and providing the necessary response back to tomcat as JSP pages. Tomcat then returns the response back to the client by rendering the JSP.

What happens in a Servlets life-cycle?

A servlet life cycle consists of three main methods:

1. init(): This method is used to initialize the servlet. A servlet is initialized only once either when the server is being started or on being invoked by the client using the respective URL.

2. service(): Once an instance of the servlet is created, then tomcat calls the service method of the servlet. The service method is responsible for generating the response for the incoming request passed on to it by tomcat. This method makes calls to other resources on the server-side required for fetching data from the database and providing a response back to tomcat.

3. destroy(): The destroy method is invoked by tomcat at the end for all clean up related activities, such as the closing of database connections, freeing up resources for garbage collection, etc.

Advantages of Apache Tomcat

  1. The biggest advantage of apache tomcat is that it’s open-source. There is no need to shell out money in order to use this software. One could easily download it over the internet and configure it, and start working with it.
  2. The Apache software foundation provides regular updates to make it compatible with other software versions and providing bug fixes thus making it easier for developers to use.
  3. Tomcat supports SSL( Secure Socket Layer) and therefore can be configured using an SSL certificate to secure sensitive data by providing a secure connection.
  4. Tomcat can also be configured to run multiple web applications on different ports. For example, it could be running three applications on 8080, 8081, 9090 port numbers. By default, Apache tomcat makes use of port number 8080.
  5. It’s also cross-platform compatible, that is can be used on Windows, Mac OS, Linux operating systems.
  6. It’s said to be lightweight. That is it consumes less in terms of memory and resource utilization, thus allowing the application to run smoothly on most systems without specific system requirements.

Conclusion

Apache Tomcat is the most widely and commonly used software among web application developers today. Studies have claimed that more than 60% of java applications make use of apache tomcat. There are numerous documentation and tutorials on how to use and configure apache tomcat, making it easier and more feasible for new web application developers to work with apache tomcat.

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This has been a guide to What is Apache Tomcat. Here we discuss How does it work, why do we need to use it, Servlets life-cycle and its advantages. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

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What is Tomcat?

JavaTpoint

It is an open-source Java servlet container that implements many Java Enterprise Specs such as the Websites API, Java-Server Pages and last but not least, the Java Servlet. The complete name of Tomcat is «Apache Tomcat» it was developed in an open, participatory environment and released in 1998 for the very first time. It began as the reference implementation for the very first Java-Server Pages and the Java Servlet API. However, it no longer works as the reference implementation for both of these technologies, but it is considered as the first choice among the users even after that. It is still one of the most widely used java-sever due to several capabilities such as good extensibility, proven core engine, and well-test and durable. Here we used the term «servlet» many times, so what is java servlet; it is a kind of software that enables the webserver to handle the dynamic(java-based) content using the Http protocols.

So what exactly is Apache tomcat?

If you are a little familiar with the websites or have some basic knowledge about the websites, you must have heard about the HTTP protocol or may also know what actually are they. If you want to provide any web-services such as you want to provide a simple static content possibly by using HTML (or Hypertext Markup Language), or maybe you just want to send data from a server to point you, so you necessarily need a server and that server is HTTP(HyperText transfer protocol). So, as we all know that if anyone wants to make a simple, static website, he definitely requires an HTTP server, but if he wants to make website dynamic, he has to use servlet. We use the HTTP server if we want to send simple data. If we want to send dynamic data or to make our website dynamic, we need to use the servlet. Hence, we need an HTTP server and what else we need is a container where we will run or servlet, so when we combine the HTTP server and the servlet (or we can say servlet container), they both combine to become a single server know as tomcat server.

In simple words, we can say that The Apache Tomcat is actually a server and a servlet container.

What kind of server is Tomcat?

The Java ecosystem supports a wide variety of application servers, so let’s have a little discussion on each of them and see where Tomcat fits in:

A servlet container is basically an implementation of the Java servlet specification, which is mainly used for the purpose of hosting Java servlets.

The Java enterprise application-server is an implementation of the Java specification.

A web- server is a kind of server designed to serve files using a local system such as Apache.

We can say that, at the center, the Tomcat is JSP (Java Server Pages) and Servlet. The JSP is one of the server-side programming technologies that enables the developers to create platform-independent dynamic content and also known as the server-side view rendering technology. A servlet is a java-based software component that helps in extending the capabilities of a server. However, it can also respond to several kinds of requests and generally implemented web server containers to host the web-applications on the webservers. As the developer’s point of view, we just have to write the java server pages (or JSP) or the servlet and not required to worry about routing; the Tomcat will handle the routing.

The Tomcat also consists of the webserver known as the Coyote engine due to which it’s possible to extend the capability of Tomcat to include several java enterprise specs, and including the Java Persistence API(JPA). The Tomcat also has an extended version known as the «TomEE» that contains more enterprise features.

Let’s see how to install Tomcat. But before doing that, we are required to download the Tomcat. If you are a window ten user, you can use the following given steps for downloading and installing the Tomcat on your system:

Steps to download and install the Tomcat on Windows 10 operating system

There are many versions of the Tomcat available with different features on its website. You can choose the version according to your requirements, but we suggest you download the latest stable version.

Now download any version of Tomcat you want:

What is Tomcat?

Step 2. Go to Download and click on the downloaded file and wait for little until the installation process starts.

Step 3. Once the installation process gets started, click on the «Next» button, as shown below:

What is Tomcat?

Step 4. Click on the button labeled as «I Agree.»

What is Tomcat?

Step 5. Click on the «Next» button.

What is Tomcat?

Step 6. Enter the user name and password and click on the » Next» button, as shown below:

What is Tomcat?

Step 7. Then click on the «Next» button again

What is Tomcat?

Step 8. Now click on the «Install» button.

What is Tomcat?

Wait for some time until the Tomcat gets installed.

What is Tomcat?

Step 9. Now click on the «Finish» button, here the installation of Tomcat is completed. It may ask you to restart your system, so restart your system.

Now you can start the Tomcat by clicking on its icon, and you can start and stop the server.

What is Tomcat?

Advantages of Tomcat:

Some significant advantages of Tomcat are as follows:

  • It is open-source
    It means anyone from anywhere can download, install, and use it free of cost, which makes it the first choice among the new developers and new users.
  • Incredibly Lightweight
    It is actually a very light application, even with the JavaEE’s certification. However, it provides all necessary and standard functionalities required to operate a server, which means it gives very fast load and redeploys as compared to its various alternatives.
    Yes, it is right that it does not offer so many features in case you want a number of features, it might be good for you, but if you want to have an easy and fast means in order to run your application, it is the best option for you.
  • Highly flexible
    Due to its built-in customization options, extensive and lightweight nature, it offers high flexibility, a user can run it in any fashion he wants, and it will still work as fine without any issues. Since it is open-source, anyone who has knowledge can tweak it according to his requirements.
  • Stability
    It is one of the most stable platforms available today to build on and using it to run our applications. It is incredibly stable because it runs independently of our Apache installation. In case if there is a big failure in Tomcat due to which it to stop working, the rest of our server would run just well.
  • It provides us an extra level of security
    As the several organizations usually like to position their Tomcat’s installation behind the protection of an extra firewall which can be accessible only from the Apache installation.
  • It is well documented
    It has several excellent documentation available, including a vast range of freely available online tutorials that can be downloaded or viewed directly online by the user, which makes it one of the best choices to fill the requirement of an application server in mostly every java web-application.Whether a user is looking for the installation instructions, startup settings, server configuration notes, all kind of information about the Tomcat is already available on the internet.
  • It is one of the most widely used application servers
    According to an estimation, it holds almost 60 percent of the market share almost all java application server deployments, which makes it one of the most popular application servers used for java web-based applications. However, we cannot say that it implements all of the features required for a JavaEE application server; instead, it enables us to run Java EE application.
    Tomcat acts as a «webserver» or «servlet container.» However, there is a plethora of terminology for anything.
  • It’s mature
    We take a look back in the past; we will find that it has existed for almost 20 years, which is quite a significant time, in which it gets mature over time passage. Since the Tomcat is open-source software, it’s updated, and new releases come out nearly on a regular basis, and the open-source community maintains it. The maturity makes it one of the most extremely stable application servers for the development of software, applications, and deploying java applications. Since now, it is extremely a stable option that becomes more powerful with excellent community support.

Let discuss some disadvantages of Tomcat

  • It is not as fast as the Apache if we are working with the static pages
  • It has some issues like a memory leak
  • It’s way to handle the logs.
  • Issues in the SSL installations
  • Its user interface is inferior and basic.

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